Rachel’s Mandarin Word List

Perhaps you’ve heard of the Swadesh list — a compilation of basic concepts, which can be useful to learn as a core set of vocabulary when learning a new language.

While learning Esperanto, it became more clear to me what kind of things I talk about and what words I use most often (whereas with English I just took everything for granted!), so that’s why I compile my own Word List when I’m studying a new language.

So… here is my word list! (Work in Progress!)

Verbs

English Esperanto Mandarin
Pinyin
Mandarin
Hanzi
To be Esti Shì
To say Diri Shuō
To be able to Povi Nénggòu 能够
To have Havi Yǒu
To want Voli Xiǎng
To wish to Deziri (?) Yào
To need Bezoni
To must do Devi Yīngdāng 应当
To like Ŝati Xǐhuān 喜欢
To not like, dislike Malŝati Bù Xǐhuān 不喜欢
To love Ami Ài
To hate Malami Hèn
To ask Demandi Wèn
To request Peti Yāoqiú 要求
To answer Respondi Dáfù 答复
To stay Resti Dòuliú 逗留
To go, leave Iri, Foriri
To come, towards speaker Veni Lái
To come, towards listener Veni
To see Vidi ? ?
To hear Aŭdi ? ?
To begin Komenci ? ?
To end Fini ? ?
To search Serĉi ? ?
To find Trovi ? ?
To give Doni ? ?
To take, obtain Preni ? ?
To carry Porti ? ?
To know, learned Scii ? ?
To know, met Koni ? ?
To think Pensi ? ?
To have the opinion Opinii ? ?
To play Ludi ? ?
To feel, emotionally Senti ? ?
To seem Ŝajni ? ?
To walk Marŝi ? ?
To run Kuri ? ?
To sit Sidi ? ?
To stand Stari ? ?
To buy Aĉeti ? ?
To sell Vendi ? ?
To create Krei ? ?
To write, work on Verki ? ?
To read Legi ? ?
To agree Konsenti ? ?
To disagree Malkonsenti ? ?
To understand Kompreni ? ?
To not understand Ne komprendi ? ?
To follow Sekvi ? ?
To open Malfermi ? ?
To close Fermi ? ?
To break Rompi ? ?
To choose Elekti ? ?
To eat Manĝi ? ?
To drink, non-alcoholic Trinki ? ?

Pronouns

Wikipedia article on Chinese pronouns

Person Singular Plural*
First
person


I, me
Exclusive Inclusive
我們**
wǒmen
we, us
咱們
zánmen
we, us
Second
person
Informal Formal 你們
nǐmen
you


you

nín
you
Third
person
他/她/它

(s)he, him, her
他們/她們/它們
tāmen
they, them

Locations

 

Household Items

 

Clothes

 

Animals

 

Foods

 

Colors

 

Computer Science

(Hey, I’m a programmer!)


 

Beginner Phrases

 

English Esperanto Mandarin
Pinyin
Mandarin
Hanzi
Hello. Saluton. nǐhǎo 。 你好。
Good bye. Ĝis la revido. zàijiàn 再见
How are you? Kiel vi fartas? nǐ hǎo ma? 你好吗?
I’m doing (very) well. Mi bonfartas. wǒ hěn hǎo 。 我很好。
Welcome. Bonvenon. huānyíng 。 欢迎。
Please. Bonvolu. qǐng 。 請。
Thank you. Dankon. xièxie 谢谢
I’m hungry. Mi malsatas. wǒ è le ! 我饿了!
I want to sleep. Mi volas dormi. wǒ xiǎngshuì jiào 。 我想睡觉。
Do you want to go? Ĉu vi volas iri? nǐ yào zǒu le ma ? 你要走了吗?
I want some potatoes. Mi volas iom da terpomoj wǒ yào jǐ ge tǔdòu 。 我要几个土豆。

Sentence Structure Notes

Noun = Noun

English Esperanto Mandarin
Pinyin
Mandarin
Hanzi
I am a programmer. Mi estas programisto. wǒ shì chéngxù yuán。 我是程序员。

 

Noun = Adjective

Wikipedia entry on Chinese adjectives

English Esperanto Mandarin
Pinyin
Mandarin
Hanzi
She is beautiful. Ŝi estas bela. tā hěn piàoliang。 很漂亮
She is very beautiful. Ŝi estas tre bela. tā hǎo piàoliang。 好漂亮
That cat is black. Tiu kato estas negra. nà zhī māo shì hēi de 只猫是黑的

 

Noun Verbs

 

Noun Verbs Verb

 

Noun Verbs a Noun

 

Noun Verbs Verb Preposition Noun

 

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